Static routing enjoys many advantages over dynamic routing, such as simplicity of implementation on smaller networks, predictability , and low overhead on other routers and network links due to the lack of a dynamic routing protocol. However, static routing does present some disadvantages as well. For example, static routing is limited to small networks and does not scale well. Static routing also fails completely to adapt to network outages and failures along the route due to the fixed nature of the route. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the protocol that the computer uses to send data across the internet. TCP takes the information sent by a person and breaks into small parts called packets.

This arbitration provision shall survive termination of these Product Terms and the termination of any account you may have with us. This layer addresses and packages data for transmission, and is responsible for routing the packets across the network. When a device is connected to the internet it is assigned an address called an IP Address. This address may change between connections, but allows all devices to be identified on the internet for the purpose of data packet addressing. With all the data packets flying around the internet, it’s hard to see how on earth anything gets to where it needs to.

4 Packet Switching

Each packet has a number of information such as the unit number, a destination IP address and a sequence number . These information allow the packets to arranged in a chronological order and allow the recipient to be able to re-order the packets to gain access to the information. TCP/IP implementations differ in the approach they take to deciding on datagram size.

  • When a TCP connection first opens, both ends can send the maximum datagram size they can handle.
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  • Note that the UDP header is shorter than a TCP header.
  • – The NAL transmits the datagram to the media to begin its journey.

This header actually contains at least 20 octets, but the most important ones are a source and destination “port number” and a “sequence number”. The port numbers are used to keep track of different conversations. Your TCP might allocate port numbers 1000, 1001, and 1002 to these transfers. When you are sending a datagram, this becomes the “source” port number, since you are the source of the datagram. Of course the TCP at the other end has assigned a port number of its own for the conversation.

20 IPv6 Addresses

The User Datagram Protocol , on the other hand, is a connectionless protocol which seldom deals with the transmission of important data because it lacks flow control or any other method to ensure reliable delivery of the data. UDP is commonly used in such applications as audio and video streaming, where it is considerably faster than TCP due to the lack of error correction and flow control, and where the loss of a few packets is not generally catastrophic. In order to give a bit better idea what is involved in the application protocols, I’m going to show an example of SMTP, which is the mail protocol.